When the Stadium Goes Silent: How Crowds Affect the Performance of Discriminated Groups

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningfagfællebedømt

Using a natural experiment induced by COVID-19, we test how the sudden absence of fans at football games impacts player performance in Italy. We find that African players, who are most commonly targeted by racial harassment, play better when fans are no longer at the stadium. A similar, albeit weaker, effect is detected among black players. Using official records of racist behavior by fans, we show that performance improves the most on teams that were subject to abuse before the lockdown. Our evidence suggests that racist pressure can harm discriminated groups and lower the overall quality of the game.
TidsskriftJournal of Labor Economics
Udgave nummer2
Sider (fra-til)431-451
StatusUdgivet - 2023

ID: 321938124